Howard Gardner's Multiple Intelligences theory

Multiple Intelligences

Howard Gardner speaks of seven distinct intelligences. He says, "we are all able to know the world through language, logical-mathematical analysis, spatial representation, musical thinking, the use of the body to solve problems or to make things, an understanding of other individuals, and an understanding of ourselves. Where individuals differ is in the strength of these intelligences - the so-called profile of intelligences -and in the ways in which such intelligences are invoked and combined to carry out different tasks, solve diverse problems, and progress in various domains."


Gardner says that these differences "challenge an educational system that assumes that everyone can learn the same materials in the same way and that a uniform, universal measure suffices to test student learning."


Visual-Spatial - People who are aware of their space and environment and are interested in drawing, 3D modelling, map reading, pictures, graphsetc.

Bodily-kinesthetic - People who have a sharp sense of the body awareness. They like movement and understand body language, they like equipments and real objects.

Musical - People who have a sense of rhythm and sound, they pick up music and are sensitive to audio signals.

Interpersonal - People who learn through interaction. Have many friends, empathy for others, street smarts. Tools they like are the mobile phone, video conferencing, writing, computer conferencing, E-mail.

Intrapersonal - People who try to understand their own goals. Always in tune with their inner feelings; they have wisdom, intuition and motivation, as well as a strong will, confidence and opinions.They like to use books, diaries. They are highly independent learners.

Linguistic - People who use words effectively. They have strong auditory skills and think in words. They like  computers, games, multimedia, books, tape recorders, and lecture.

Logical -They love calculating. They think conceptually, abstractly and are able to see and explore patterns and relationships.They need to learn and form concepts before they can deal with details.

Multimedia can be used to showcase all the above learning styles. Certain elements must be considered, these elements are as follows:
  • Visuals
  • Printed words
  • Sound
  • Motion
  • Color
  • Realia
  • InstructionalsSetting
  • Learner characteristics
  • Reading ability

Selected Articles and Links